Montenegro has an area of 13,812 km² and a population of 622 thousand people. GDP is $13,214 million ($21,000 per capita). Imports of goods and services correspond to 66.7% of GDP. Forests cover 61.5% of the country. The most common tree species is Balkan beech (Fagus moesiaca).


Montenegro is located in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, covering approximately 13,812 km². It shares borders with Croatia (14 km), Bosnia and Herzegovina (225 km) to the west, Serbia and Kosovo (UNSCR 1244/1999) to the north and northeast, and Albania (172 km) to the southeast. The country is separated from Italy by the Adriatic Sea.

Montenegro’s terrain ranges from high peaks along the Serbian and Albanian borders to plains, including the Bjelopavlićka and Zetska plains.

The country’s main rivers flow into the Adriatic and Black Sea basins, and it has nearly 400 km² of lakes, with only Pivsko Lake being artificial.

Considering criteria related to relief, climate, and geology, Montenegro’s territory can be divided into five regions: Eastern, Northern, Central, Karst, and Montenegrin Coast.

Land use in Montenegro in 2021 covered 255,564.4 ha, with the majority (94.3%) being permanent grassland and pasture, followed by arable land (2.7%), permanent crops (2.2%), and gardens (0.8%). These figures experienced slight changes compared to 2020.

Montenegro’s protected forests cover 13.41% of the country’s territory and are protected as national parks, nature parks, and reserves. These areas preserve diverse ecosystems, including forests, meadows, and habitats for various species.

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Forest area

million ha

Agricultural land

255 564

Protected areas

185 270

Demographics in Montenegro

Population Trends:

The purpose of producing population estimates is to obtain data necessary for analyzing the natural population movement in Montenegro and its municipalities, including birth rates, fertility rates, and other indicators.

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Climate Characteristics and Change in Montenegro

The climate of Serbia can be described as moderately continental with distinct seasons. Summers are warm, with July being the hottest month, particularly in the mountains where average temperatures are between 13°C and 17°C.

Winters are cold, with January as the coldest month. Most areas experience snow cover from November to March.

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Change (°C) in mean winter (DJF), summer (JJA), and annual (ANN) temperatures for the periods 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100 compared to the period 1971–2000, according to the RCP8.5 climate change scenario.
Change (%) in mean winter (DJF), summer (JJA), and annual (ANN) accumulated precipitation for the periods 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100 compared to the period 1971–2000, according to the RCP8.5 climate change scenario.


In the context of landscape fire management in Montenegro, the list of stakeholders involved is the following:

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    Organizational Setup of the System

    Montenegro has established a comprehensive fire management system involving various stakeholders, including government authorities, administrative bodies, private entities, and specialized units. This system aims to prevent, mitigate, and respond to various types of emergencies, including forest fires, with a focus on coordination, preparedness, and environmental protection.

    State authorities and administrative bodies are equipped and trained for fire protection and rescue, according to the Law on Protection and Rescue.

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    1. Law on Protection and Rescue
    2. Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction
    3. Law on Nature Protection
    4. Law on Environmental Protection
    5. Law on Forests

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    Landscape fires

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    Burnt areas:


    Forest growing stock loss:


    Number of forest fires:


    Fire risk assessment

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    SWOT Analysis

    Montenegro aims to implement the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction by 2030, starting in 2015. This involves enhancing the existing legal framework to encompass the entire disaster management cycle comprehensively. Additionally, fostering international and regional collaboration and strengthening technical capacities for early warning systems are vital. Enhancing scientific research and cooperation with domestic and international experts is crucial.

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    LFM guidelines

    The Landscape Fire Management guidelines provide a comprehensive framework for effective decision-making in fire prevention, mitigation, and response efforts. These guidelines address key challenges in landscape fire management in Montenegro:

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